Raw Ingredients (Savoury)
Preferably a medium strength untreated bread flour for consistent results. For tinless pork pies of the larger type it may be desirable to use a very strong flour, and keep the resultant paste on the dry side.
Lard is generally accepted as the best fat for all pie pastes with the exception of puff paste where a special plastic fat is desirable.
Beef dripping can be used either solely or in conjunction with lard.
Pure vegetable shortenings are excellent but are generally more expensive.
Low D.E Glucose
These will also improve the colour or bloom of the finished product, and a slight lowering of baking temperature may be desirable.
Proprietary additives for reducing the toughness of the paste and thereby enabling the economic use of scrap without risk of shrinkage in the baked product, may also be used.
In general they are based on Soya Flour with the addition of either Protoelylic Enzyme (Proteinase 15) or L Cysteine Hydrochloride. Both of these substances act on the gluten formed in paste, softening it and reducing tension.
Meats For Fillings
Knuckle, Neck Piece & Scrag
Generally pre-cooked by boiling or pressure cooking with stock, vegetables and seasonings in the liquid. Meat passed through appropriate mincer blade (fine cut) or by use of a bowl chopper.
Boiled Bacon Knuckle
Shoulder (Hand & Spring) Belly - Provides the 25% necessary for pies.
Generally prepared raw by mincing with chop. Fat cut on larger blade so that it shows in finished pie.
Shank, Thick Flank, Thin Flank - From hind quarter
Shin, Plate and Brisket - From forequarter
Cut by mincing with kidney chop plate, then cooking by stewing or pressure cooking. Up to 25% kidney (Beef or Pigs) may be added for steak & kidney.
Stock / Gravy
Meat is boiled in liquid containing vegetables, spices and seasoning. Birds are left immersed in liquid overnight.
Liquid, bones and giblets reduced in stock to form gravy.
Livers are generally used to make a pate.
Soya or textured vegetable proteins produced from soya.
Savoury extracts (hydrolised proteins and autolysed yeasts).
Waxy maize starch (Instant and hot swelling).
Prepared flours (wheat, rice & potato) for thickening.
Emulsifying agents (polyglycerides and polyphosphate) for fat retention particularly with regard to sausage meat for sausage rolls.
Pork, Veal & Ham
Prepared rusk for bread
Soya flour (additional moistness)
Proteins (gelatine or agar L agar)
Waxy maize starch
Sodium nitrate for colour
Acid treated starch for glazing
Mashed potato powder (moistness)
Milk powder or whey powder
Butter or chicken fats
Whilst there are many types of seasoning which may be used for various types of pies, the type used will to some extent be decided by consumers palate or local preference. Although it is very easy up ones own seasonings, excellent proprietary packs can be purchased ideally blended, with a standard weight of usage, per given weight of meat.
Raw Ingredients (Sweet)
Variable from very soft types (low protein) to medium strength types (higher protein)
The less strength required in the finished product the lower the protein strength of the flour should be. This will be governed by the follwing:
Quality of the finished product.
Type of packaging to be used.
Amount of trucking involved.
Good quality shortenings, margarine, butters or combinations of these.
Ratio of fat to flour variable between 150g to 250 grams per 400 grams of flour. The higher the fat the more friable the paste.
It is essential that any sugar used be in solution. The lower the liquid in the paste the finer the grain of sugar should be.
In general Caster Sugar or pulverised are excellent, for cheaper high liquid pastes granulated may be used.
Undissolved sugar in pastes results in brown specks appearing on the baked product.
Usually only Soya Flour of proprietary soya based products are used. These improve the machinability of the paste and enable scrap to be used up efficiently without deterioration of the finished product.
Glucose or invert sugars may be used instead of sugar to improve colouration.